Methodology : contrastive observation
Perhaps, the most crucial aspect of all studies of interdiscursive communication is that of contrastive observation. We want to know not only what do people do but also how might they have done otherwise. The surest way to learn how someone might have done otherwise is to contrast their action with the actions of people in other places, at other times, or in other groups.
We can have four type of data and he can be called:
1. Member's generalizations
2. Neutral observation
3. Individual member's experience
4. Observer's intentions with members
In the first case, the researcher is concerned with getting an answer to the question:
what do people in this group say is the meaning of this action? That is, the idea is to see what people themselves say about what they are doing. Of course, we are aware that people can easily give rationalizations of their actions and behaviour that are wide of the mark of reality. Nevertheless, it is crucial in intercultural communication to know how the ingroup, the members of the society or group, themselves characterize their own actions.